11 Apr 2023

Could Transit Oriented Development Lessen Jakarta’s Traffic?

by:Amira Sofa

Editor:Aditya Gagat Hanggara

11 Apr 2023

For those of you who live or work in Jakarta, you might be familiar with the traffic jams. However, did you know that traffic jam has existed over time? Symptoms of congestion in Jakarta itself have started to appear since 1965, and even decades later, this problem is still occurring. 

In 2023, Tomtom International BV's researchshows that Jakarta’s congestion index is ranked 29th in the world. To travel 10 kilometers, vehicle users in Jakarta must spend 22 minutes and 40 seconds.

Over the years, the Provincial Government of Jakarta has tried to minimize traffic jams, by preparing people to switch to using public transportation. A series of efforts have been made, such as the development and revitalization of public transportation infrastructure, to the implementation of an urban planning concept that makes it easier for everyone to use public transportation, called Transit Oriented Development.

Transit Oriented Development in Jakarta

What is Transit Oriented Development? How can this concept make public transportation access more affordable for Jakartans? Is the concept effective in dealing with traffic jams? Read more to find out. 

Transit Oriented Development Area in Jakarta

Transit Oriented Development is an urban planning development patternthat is integrated with the transportation system. TOD aims so that residents' settlements, trade centers, service centers, offices, open spaces, public spaces, and other community services can be easily accessed from one another only by walking, cycling, or using public transportation, through nearby bus stops or places of transit.

TOD generally includes central transit, such as train stations, bus terminals, and airports which are designed as high-density areas around them. The densest areas of the TOD are usually located 400-800 meters around the central stop to remain effective for pedestrians. In Jakarta, the development of transit oriented areas has started since the first MRT was developed in Jakartain 2015 through the use of the land around the station for the property. PT. MRT Indonesia is also developing the TOD concept in the construction of the first phase of the MRT station on the Lebak Bulus-Dukuh Atas route. The Lebak Bulus, Fatmawati, Cipete, Blok M, and Dukuh Atas Stations were made as the maximum TOD. Senayan, Istora and Bendungan Hilir Stations were developed as medium TOD. Meanwhile, Haji Nawi, Block A, Sisimangaraja, and Setiabudi are the minimum TOD areas.

Transit-Oriented Development Areas in Jakarta

Dukuh Atas became the first area to be developed as a Transit Oriented Development. The Dukuh Atas area is designed to have a number of developments such as:

  1. Simpang Temu Dukuh Atas serves as a transit hub area for Transjakarta, Commuter Line, Airport Train, MRT, and online motorcycle taxis. In addition, it also functions as an office and business area;
  2. Serambi Temu Dukuh Atas or a multipurpose pedestrian bridge that functions to connect the Jabodetabek LRT Station and the Sudirman KCI Station, as well as cross the West Flood Canal. The various features provided are access to bicycle elevators, stairs, lifts, and shops;
  3. Pedestrian Tunnel Plaza UOB, is a pedestrian tunnel that connects Dukuh Atas MRT Station and UOB Plaza. The tunnels are designed to be disabled friendly and equipped with several facilities such as retail and storage space;
  4. The pedestrianization of Jalan Blora, a part of the improvement of Dukuh Atas connectivity which supports the transit function at Dukuh Atas MRT Station and Sudirman MRT Station;
  5. Affordable public housing that is close to activity centers, public services, and public transportation.

Meanwhile, the Lebak Bulus area was developed with the following innovations:

  1. Transit Plaza in front of Poins, a transit plaza in the form of a flyover that connects the Lebak Bulus Grab MRT Station and Poins Square;
  2. Simpang Temu Lebak Bulus, a hub that connects the MRT Lebak Bulus Grab Station to Poins Square and is equipped with lifts, escalators, stairs, and bicycle parking facilities;
  3. Park and Ride Lebak Bulus, a building that functions as apartments, retail, and parking areas;
  4. Affordable public housing that is close to activity centers, public services, and public transportation.

The Blok M area provides three newly developed facilities, namely:

  1. Revitalization of Taman Martha Tiahahu as a literacy park. There, people can read physical books as well as digital books. Martha Tiahahu Literacy Park also provides an amphitheater area, children's playground, coffee shops, and food outlets;
  2. Mahakam Transit Plaza which functions as Affordable Business Space, commercial activities, and garden arrangement;
  3. Affordable public housing that is close to activity centers, public services, and public transportation.

The development of Istora-Senayan as a Transit Oriented Area includes:

  1. Pedestrian Tunnel Menara Mandiri, a tunnel that connects the Istora-Mandiri MRT Station and Menara Mandiri is designed to be disabled-friendly and equipped with shops;
  2. Affordable public housing that is close to activity centers, public services, and public transportation.

The Fatmawati area is equipped with the One Belpark Land Affordable Residential development, which is a communal Affordable Flat (RST) so citizens can own a house in strategic locations close to activity centers, public services, and public transportation.

Transit Oriented Development continues to be expanded and developed in other areas with various focuses. For example, the development of TOD at Cipete, Block A, and Haji Nawi Stations encourages the equal distribution of shopping activities for pedestrians, cyclists, and public transportation users. Showing seriousness in developing TOD, PT. MRT Jakarta (Perseroda) together with PT. Jakarta Transportation even launched a new subsidiary, called PT. Jakarta Transit Integration that is specifically tasked with managing transit oriented areas in Jakarta.

Why Transit Oriented Development?

Transit Oriented Development is not only considered capable of intensifying the use of public transportation as a solution to congestion, but holistically it is also beneficial to enhance the life quality of Jakartans. Jakarta's high population density and the difficulty of limited land have given rise to slum areas where unsuitable housing is located in the city center. Vertical housing facilities, which are often offered in TOD areas, can provide residents with decent housing with affordable access to the destinations they need while increasing property value. Retails and green spaces that can be reached within a short distance by citizens can also support the economy, and regional environment, and encourage a healthy and active lifestyle for the community.

To ensure that these objectives can be achieved, PT. MRT Jakarta builds Transit Oriented Development with eight principles, which are:

  • Mixed functions within walking distance from each station, namely commercial, office, institutional, residential, and public facilities functions;
  • High density around transit stations according to the carrying capacity of the region;
  • Improving the quality of simple, direct, intuitive connectivity that supports mobility to, from, and between stations that are free of motorized vehicles and has a clear marking system;
  • Improved quality of life;
  • Social justice support;
  • Environmental sustainability support;
  • Infrastructure resilience support;
  • Economic update.

The Transit Oriented Development project still needs to be supervised altogether. Even now, various stakeholders are preparing business schemes and TOD development. For example, PT. MRT Jakarta (Perseroda) and PT. Jasa Marga (Persero) Tbk agreed to develop the TOD area in Taman Mini Indonesia Indah.

What do you think about it, Smartcitizen? Are you interested in Transit Oriented Development? Let's wait for the next transit-oriented area innovation in Jakarta. Don’t forget to take care of them once they are ready for public use!

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