13 Sep 2023

Smart City: What Is It and How Is It Implemented?

by:Amira Sofa

Editor:Ramdan Malik Batubara, Aditya Gagat Hanggara

13 Sep 2023

What do you think of when you hear the term smart city? One that might cross your mind is a futuristic city with autonomous cars plying the streets. Or robots that replace human work functions in offices, restaurants, and entertainment venues. But, did you know that the concept of a smart city doesn't always have to be grand? There are innovations that at first glance seem simple but are classified as smart city implementations in Jakarta.

Smart City and Its Implementation

Smart city is based on fundamental things, which are innovation and technology. Smart City is a city development concept that integrates information and communication technology to improve public services and the quality of life of its citizens. This definition is supported by UNECE (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe) and ITU (International Telecommunication Union) which define smart sustainable cities as innovative cities that utilize Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to improve the quality of life of citizens, service efficiency, operations, city competition, and ensuring that cities meet the economic, social, environmental and cultural needs of current and future generations.

From that definition, we can conclude, that no matter how simple the innovations produced by a city, if these innovations can solve urban problems by utilizing technology, then the city has implemented smart city initiatives. To get to know the smart city concept more closely, how the system works, to its application in Jakarta, read this article.

How did Smart City Originate?

Before getting to know more about a smart city, it is also important to know its history. In retrospect, the concept of a smart city began when the city of Los Angeles created an urban big data project, A Cluster Analysis of Los Angeles, in the 1970s. Within the project, reports on neighborhood demographics and housing quality to reduce poverty were produced by the Bureau of Community Analysis, using computer-based data, cluster analysis, and infrared aerial photography. The A Cluster Analysis of Los Angeles project also initiated the use of computer technology as a medium for collecting city analyst data in the United States.

Then, in 1994, the capital of the Netherlands, Amsterdam, implemented the digital city concept, by holding dialogues between residents and politicians regarding city issues and agendas through the use of the website. This innovation makes Amsterdam the first city to implement a smart city.

Various research on smart cities continues to be carried out by various organizations and corporations. For example, Cisco, a leading company in the field of information technology and networks, has conducted research on smart cities for five years since 2005. The IBM Smarter Planet project also researched the application of sensors, networks, and analytics to urban problems in 2008, then continued with the Smarter Cities campaign. to help city systems become more efficient. Until now, cities around the world are competing to become smart cities by involving the basic principles of technology in city management, providing public services, and meeting the needs of citizens. One of them is the integration of information and public services through applications.

Smart City Pillars

Smart city development is based on several pillars. Usually, this pillar depends on each city. In Jakarta, smart city development adopts six indicators or pillars, namely smart governance, smart economy, smart environment, smart mobility, smart people, and smart living.

Smart Governance

Smart Governance is information and communication technology-based governance that aims to increase effectiveness, efficiency, transparency, participation, and connections between government, citizens, industry, and other stakeholders in policymaking. Several smart city innovations can be implemented in governance such as integrated digital public services, data-based policies, utilization of Master Data Management and Big Data, citizen complaint channels, community engagement, Satu Data and Open Data, online access budget, and others.

Smart Economy

The Smart Economy is an information and communication technology-based economic system that is oriented towards innovation and sustainability by involving start-ups, investors, and businesses. Several smart city innovations in the economic field include developing startup ecosystems, food security, MSMEs Go Onboard, utilizing e-commerce, creating jobs, one-stop payment integration, and so on.

Smart Environment

Smart Environment is responsible and sustainable environmental governance by taking into account environmental factors. Smart environment innovations include Information and Communication Technology (ICT)-based flood control, smart waste management, reducing carbon emissions, smart energy, green buildings, sanitation management, and others.

Smart Mobility

Smart Mobility is mobility governance that focuses on efficiency, sustainability, and the quality of urban transportation services. Innovations that can be developed include integrated transportation systems, online transportation tickets, bicycle rentals, transportation information services, ride-sharing applications, city map parking applications to support mobility, and others.

Smart People

Smart People is a condition when citizens in a city have quality social interaction. For example, when citizens can interact with the public and private sectors through information services or service provision, their needs can be facilitated through services that are inclusive and easily accessible. The implementation of smart people includes citizen involvement in the service determination process, youth involvement in Jakarta development, joint classes, community surveys, public dashboards, job vacancies portals, etc.

Smart Living

Smart Living is a system that aims to support the quality of life of city residents inclusively. For example, through innovations such as Jakarta Safe City, health service information portals, free public Wi-Fi, smart tourism, online travel tickets, and so on.

How is the implementation of Smart City in Jakarta?

In Jakarta, the pioneering of the smart city concept began in 2015. One of the efforts to introduce a smart city at that time was through the Jakarta Fair 2015 which was held at JIExpo Kemayoran. Then, the development of smart cities in Jakarta has continued about the Movement Towards 100 Smart Cities since 2017. This movement is a program that aims to assist 100 cities or regencies as pilots in preparing smart city master plans and implementing them in their respective regions, including Jakarta.

Moving Towards Smart City 4.0 with Jakarta Smart City

In 2014, to make Jakarta a smart city 4.0, the Provincial Government of DKI Jakarta established Jakarta Smart City. The Jakarta Smart City Regional Public Service Agency (BLUD) is under the auspices of the DKI Jakarta Province Communication, Informatics, and Statistics Agency (Diskominfotik) which is tasked with optimizing technology in government affairs and public services. All regulations regarding Jakarta Smart City are regulated in Governor Regulation Number 280 of 2014 concerning the Formation, Organization, and Work Procedure of the Jakarta Smart City Management Unit.

Jakarta Smart City moves based on the six indicators discussed earlier, namely smart governance, smart economy, smart environment, smart people, smart mobility, and smart living. These six indicators form the basis of Jakarta Smart City products and services.

Jakarta Smart City Products and Services

To become a smart city, Jakarta Smart City presents a variety of superior products in the form of digital-based public services.

  1. JAKI application

JAKI (Jakarta Kini) is the first Jakarta super-app developed since 2019. It is called a super-app, because JAKI integrates more than 60 features and more than 150 applications belonging to Regional Apparatus Organizations (OPD), and makes public services more effective and efficient. With JAKI, Jakarta residents and visiting tourists alike can access various services with just one smartphone. Some of JAKI's superior services are:

  • Citizen Report

This feature allows residents to send reports regarding problems encountered in Jakarta, such as garbage, floods, and others. Reports from residents will be directly connected to the Rapid Response Community (CRM) system so that the follow-up of the officers concerned becomes faster. Citizens can also monitor the status of the reports they send through a special portal.

  • Taxes

JAKI also fulfills the needs of Jakartans regarding taxation. Through the Tax feature which is the result of integration with the DKI Jakarta Provincial Revenue Agency (Bapenda), residents can check their tax status and pay taxes online. Tax checks apply to Motor Vehicle Tax (PKB), Land and Building Tax (PBB), Regional Tax, and e-Retribution. While tax payments so far apply to the PBB.

  • Food Prices

To help residents find out the price of food ingredients in the market, JAKI presents the Food Price feature. Through this feature, residents can find out the price of food commodities in the markets closest to their locations. This feature has also been integrated with Perumda Pasar Jaya and food commodity prices are updated every day, so that information can be ensured to be accurate.

  • News

With JAKI, residents can also access accurate news and information about Jakarta, from the Beritajakarta portal to direct information from various OPDs in the DKI Jakarta Provincial Government, such as natural disaster forecasts from the DKI Jakarta Provincial Disaster Management Agency (BPBD).

  • Public Transportation

The Public Transportation feature is the result of JAKI's collaboration with PT JakLingko. Jakarta residents and tourists who use public transportation can use this feature to check MRT Jakarta schedules, routes, and fares, LRT Jakarta, TransJakarta, and Mikrotrans.

  • Jakarta Park

To make it easier for residents to have recreation in parks in Jakarta, JAKI also provides the Jakarta Park feature. This feature integrates visit reservation services, and ticket checks, to check the location of parks in Jakarta. However, currently, only the Martha Christiana Tiahahu Literacy Park has been integrated. In the future, the Jakarta Park feature can be integrated with other parks in Jakarta.

  1. Rapid Community Response

Rapid Community Response (CRM) is a system that integrates 13 DKI Jakarta Provincial Government official complaint channels, including the Citizen Report feature on JAKI. All reports from residents are collected in the CRM system, so they can be followed up in a more responsive, transparent, and efficient manner.

  1. Flood Control System

Flooding is one of the challenges of the city of Jakarta. To anticipate this natural disaster, Jakarta Smart City has developed the Pantau Banjir website which is a source of information for Jakarta residents regarding flooding. Not only the latest news about Jakarta floods, the Pantau Banjir website also includes the Monitor Flood dashboard, year-round flood data, and so on.

  1. Jakarta Kini Map

To help citizens explore the city, JAKI has the Jakarta Kini Map. This map shows the location points of various facilities and infrastructure that support residents' activities throughout Jakarta. Starting from parks and green open spaces, public transportation facilities, and health facilities, to tourist destinations.

  1. Digital Xperience

With the help of 360° video technology, residents can experience the experience of walking around public spaces in the city center and enjoying the beauty of the Thousand Islands cluster. Residents can access Digital Xperience through the Jakarta Smart City corporate website.

  1. Data Science Trainees

Data Science Trainee is a two-month training program for fresh graduates from all majors to understand problems in Jakarta and propose and implement solutions using a data science approach. In one batch of Data Science Trainees, there are 6-9 participants. Each participant will be given 1-2 mentors from the Jakarta Smart City Data Analysis and Studies Division. Each participant will do a capstone project and a final presentation of research results. The result of this program is in the form of academic papers, Medium articles, and final presentations.

In 2022, Jakarta Smart City collaborated with Manado State University (UNIMA) within the framework of the Merdeka Campus program as a space for exploration to gain knowledge and network outside of campus. Through this collaboration, UNIMA students who are in their fifth semester are introduced to and prepared to fill digital talent positions in the field of data after graduating from college. This collaboration was carried out for two months online via Zoom media.

Apart from those from Jakarta Smart City, Jakarta also produces other smart city innovations. Regarding the implementation of smart governance, for example, Jakarta Smart City implements the following three innovations.

  1. Electronic Based Government System (SPBE)
  2. Digital public services that are integrated into the JAKI application
  3. Data-driven policy

Data plays an important role in policymaking within the DKI Jakarta Provincial Government. Jakarta Smart City integrates internal data related to taxes, Social Security Administration Agency (BPJS), social assistance, levies, National Identity Number (NIK), Family Card (KK), and others, with external data related to citizen reports, weather, quality air, social media, and so on.

This data is then processed. Some of them are stored in the data warehouse and some are processed using Master Data Management. The processed data becomes material for public services related to education, health, social assistance, the economy, and so on. From this stage, public services are packaged in various products, for example, JAKI application features, site-based OPD services, dashboards, and data analysis. This data analysis can be used for policymaking. With data-based policymaking, public policies will be more targeted.

Meanwhile, to realize smart economy indicators, Jakarta Smart City has implemented various innovations, namely:

  1. JakPreneur

An intelligent economic system does not only involve technology but is also capable of adopting new entrepreneurial initiatives and improving the welfare of citizens. Through the JakPreneur program, DKI Jakarta Provincial Government empowers Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs). MSMEs can get business training, entrepreneurial assistance, business licensing assistance, and business capital. JakPreneur has also been integrated with the JAKI application with the name Business feature in Jakarta. Through this feature, residents can access all of JakPreneur's services, check information on JakPreneur's activities, and buy various MSME products.

  1. MSME Digital Transactions

Not only for MSME players, smart economy innovations carried out in Jakarta make it easier for buyers too. MSMEs that have joined JakPreneur now serve digital transactions through QRIS so that residents who want to buy MSME products can make transactions more easily.

The application of a smart city through smart environment indicators has also been implemented in Jakarta in the following ways.

  1. Flood Control System

The Flood Control System was developed by Jakarta Smart City together with the DKI Jakarta Provincial Water Resources Agency (DSDA) to optimize flood risk management in Jakarta. The Flood Control System collects historical data on water level sensors, water flow sensors, rainfall sensors, pump vibration sensors, and pump temperature sensors collected by sensors and the Internet of Things (IoT) spread across 178 locations in Jakarta. The data is then integrated into a single platform that can generate information about flood conditions and predictions to provide flood management solutions. In addition, this data can also be taken into consideration for making policies in dealing with flooding in Jakarta.

  1. Electric public transportation

To reduce carbon emissions, PT TransJakarta operated its first 30 electric buses on March 8, 2022. From then to July 2023, the 30 buses have covered a distance of two million kilometers. This is equivalent to reducing emissions by 5.5 million kilograms of CO2, or the amount that can be absorbed by 250 thousand trees. Success in creating smart and environmentally friendly public transportation services has prompted PT TransJakarta to target the procurement of 100 units of electric buses by 2023.

Then, when viewed from smart mobility indicators, Jakarta has implemented several innovations such as:

  1. Transit Oriented Development (TOD) Development

TOD is an urban planning development pattern that integrates various modes of public transportation. Some of the TOD areas in Jakarta are:

  • The Dukuh Atas area connects the TransJakarta hub transit area, Commuter Line, Airport Train, and MRT, to LRT.
  • The Tebet Integration Station connects the Commuter Line, TransJakarta, Mikrotrans, and Bajaj.
  • The Lebak Bulus area connects MRT, TransJakarta, Mikrotrans, and Lebak Bulus Park and Ride

  1. Public Transportation Payment System Integration

The public transportation payment system was developed to accommodate the mobility needs of Jakarta residents. Based on DKI Jakarta Governor Regulation Number 63 of 2020, JakLingko Indonesia has a role in developing an integrated intermodal payment system in Indonesia. Some of the payment systems that have been developed so far are:

  • Electronic Money Cards from various providers that have been standardized become transportation cards for various modes.
  • The JakLingko application allows users to buy tickets in the form of a QR code.
  • The maximum integration tariff is IDR 10,000 which is more affordable by applying terms and conditions.

Whether a city is smart or not is also judged by the quality of the interaction of its citizens, which is described by the smart people indicator. Jakarta has implemented several innovations based on this indicator such as:


e-Musrenbang or Electronic Development Planning Meeting is a forum for deliberations between stakeholders to discuss and agree on steps for handling priority program activities in the list of proposed village or sub-district development activity plans, which are integrated with district or city regional development priorities in the sub-district area. With the participation of all stakeholders, the community can express their aspirations and fulfill their needs.

Finally, a variety of innovations have also been born in Jakarta based on smart living indicators. Call it some of the following.

  • JakSehat

To implement a healthier quality of life for residents, the DKI Jakarta Provincial Health Office released the JakSehat application. This application provides online health services such as taking queue numbers for health facilities, queue monitoring, mental health consultations, non-communicable disease risk screening, and several other services.

  • Free WiFi

Free WiFi services have been spread across 8,163 points in Jakarta, from village offices to city parks. This free WiFi was originally to support online teaching and learning activities in Jakarta during the Covid-19 pandemic. However, now its functions have increased because it can be accessed by anyone. For example, office workers who work from anywhere (work from anywhere) as well as online business development and promotion for MSMEs. With adequate free WiFi access, the digital needs of Jakarta residents are much more fulfilled.


Lastly, based on smart branding indicators, Jakarta has also carried out several initiatives, such as:

  • Enjoy Jakarta
    As the center of government, and in the future, the center of global economics and business, Jakarta has a variety of urban, natural, religious and other tourist attractions. With this potential, the DKI Jakarta Provincial Tourism Office developed the Enjoy Jakarta tagline and branding to promote Jakarta tourism and attract tourists, both domestic and foreign.
  • Jakarta as a Global City
    After the move to the national capital, Jakarta will be transformed into a smart city on a global scale. For this reason, through Jakarta Smart City, the Jakarta Provincial Government is making various preparations in various sectors, for example providing digital public services, implementing activities that can increase citizens' digital competence, and building a Future City Hub as a meeting point for government and policymakers to solve problems in Jakarta. 


According to the DKI Jakarta Province Regional Development Planning Agency (Bappeda), there are six global city indicators, namely:

  • A well-established and globally connected economic sector
  • Good and continuous research and innovation capacity
  • Comfortable to live in
  • Attractive cultural value for visitors
  • Connected intra and inter-city
  • Clean, comfortable, and sustainable environment

Meanwhile, the city of Jakarta's efforts through Jakarta Smart City to implement the six global city indicators can be seen in the following picture.

Jakarta Smart City’s Awards

Various smart city concept innovations that have been implemented have led Jakarta to various awards from prestigious events, both national and international. Jakarta has recorded 41 wins over the last three years. Here are some of them.


  • Gold Medal in the 2020 Indonesia Entrepreneur ICT or IdenTI, Kominfo in the E-Gov 2020 National Program Competition for JAKI
  • Top Digital Implementation 2020 on Province Government Level Stars 5 for Pemprov DKI Jakarta
  • Top Digital Transformation Readiness 2020 for DKI Jakarta Provincial Government
  • Innovative Government Awards 2020 for DKI Jakarta Provincial Government


  • Best Future of Digital Innovation, IDC Awards 2021 for JAKI
  • Gold Medal Category Public Sector AICTA 2021, Asean ICT Awards for JAKI
  • Top Digital in Public Service & Smart City, Top Digital Awards 2021 for DKI Jakarta Provincial Government
  • Top IT Manager, Top Digital Awards 2021 for Heads of BLUD Jakarta Smart City


  • Champion in E-Science Category World Summit of Information Society Prizes 2022 for Flood Control System
  • The Winner of the Category Public Safety, Next Generation Emergency Services IDC Scapa Awards 2022 for Flood Control System
  • Digital Innovation for Disaster Risk Reduction, Digital Innovation Awards 2022 for JAKI
  • Provincial Best Practices, 2022 Regional Summit for DKI Jakarta Provincial Government
  • Jury Awards, IEEE Smart Cities Contest 2022 for Flood Control System
  • Innovative Government Awards 2022 for DKI Jakarta Provincial Government


  • Champion Category Building Confidence and Security in the use of ICT, World Summit of Information Society Prizes 2023 for JakLapor: Privacy-Preserving Online Public Complaint Application
  • The Best Implementation of SPBE Services at the Provincial Level, Digital Government Awards in the SPBE Summit 2023 for DKI Jakarta Provincial Government
  • Recognition of Excellence Awards, 7th Annual Indonesia OpenGov Leadership Forum for JAKI
  • Recognition of Excellence Awards, 7th Annual Indonesia OpenGov Leadership Forum for JakLapor
  • Recognition of Excellence Awards, 7th Annual Indonesia OpenGov Leadership Forum for Data Science Trainee

These awards prove Jakarta's seriousness in moving towards smart city 4.0. In the future, it is hoped that more innovations and achievements will be inscribed.

After reading this article, do you understand smart cities better? If you want to know more about Jakarta's smart city ecosystem, you can follow Jakarta Smart City's Instagramor read articles on our blog. Want to experience smart city innovation right away? Download the JAKI application on the Google Play Storeor Apple App Store, it's free!

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